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Fruit tree training systems have evolved from Spindel expanded systems to present day Espalier systems. The general tendency is to privilege thick foliage vertical leaf walls. This is the case of Bibaum system developed by Mazzoni or other systems with multiple productive branches. In all these training systems the supporting structure is given by reinforced concrete posts and numerous wires supporting trees and fruits.
In Northern Europe pergola and spacers are used in V shape or Y shape systems as an alternative to espalier systems. These systems are widely used in pear and cherry tree plantations.
Kiwi training system requires a completely different supporting structure. Arched and straight pergolas are both used according to the plantation with the aim of sustaining lateral shoots. The bending angle and dimensions vary according to the training system and the objectives of the cultrivation. To start a pergola system, select strong fruiting laterals during winter pruning, and train them over the pergola. These will become permanent secondary cordons and should be spaced about 3 feet apart. Either fruiting laterals or spurs will be allowed to develop along the secondary cordons.
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